Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The preparation and use of nitric acid were known to the early alchemists. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Mukherjee, S. K., K. T. Bhandani, and Y. R. Joharpunkar. Premium Membership is now 50% off! Dense and Porous Ammonium Nitrate. Compliance Measurements A common laboratory process used for many years, ascribed to a German chemist, Johann Rudolf Glauber (1648), consisted of heating potassium nitrate with concentrated sulfuric acid. These measurements can be used to control and develop processes and emissions abatement systems. Many well-known alchemists in the Middle Ages experimented with the acid. Aluminum Production. The principal method of manufacture of nitric acid is the catalytic oxidation of ammonia. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Cleaning products for the agro-food industry. Nitric acid is manufactured from ammonia and is a key chemical in the manufacture of fertilizers. Quite simply, fertilizer is needed to help grow crops and feed the world. The process converts ammonia to nitric acid in two steps. Corrections? It is toxic and can cause severe burns. Special chemistry. This is the main reason why nitric acid is produced in such large quantities. Among the special features which make this possible are: When it is combined with hydrochloric acid, an element called aqua regia is formed. Uses in Daily Life. The production process of nitric acid produces nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide N2O emissions. Raw Gas Measurements Nitrocellulose: varnishes and paints, civil explosives, dyes. Gasmet is an ideal partner for the chemical industry. This, in turn, forms nitric acid. The caustic, colorless liquid is typically produced on an industrial scale using highly specialized chemical processes and equipment. An example of a process that can be developed is the process of NOx reduction, or DeNOx. During the first step ammonia is oxidized to form nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Nitric acid is a type of potent mineral acid used to make things like fertilizers, dyes, and high explosives. By far the most important use of ammonia within the chemical industry is to produce nitric acid (HNO. Nitrous oxide, commonly called laughing gas, is a strong greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change. The production process of nitric acid produces nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide N2O emissions. Nitric acid is produced in concentrations from 53% to 69% and can be used in many different applications: Chemistry of nylon 6.6 (artificial fibres, plastic parts for cars). As the name might suggest, this robust Continuous Mercury Monitoring system comes with a test gas generator including automatic EN 15267 certified QAL3 validation tool. 1.2. This allows for very quick multicomponent measurements and for compensation for any cross-interference. Waste Incineration Our Calcmet software then calculates the concentrations of each gas in the sample based on the characteristic absorption. Properties Nitric acid was known to the ancient Egyptians because of its special ability to separate gold and silver. The nitrogen dioxide is absorbed in water to form nitric acid. Nitric acid is manufactured from ammonia and is a key chemical in the manufacture of fertilizers. The app and its features are completely free. By far the principal use of nitric acid (80%) is in the manufacture of fertilizers. Nitric Acid in Fertilizers. In 1776 Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier showed that it contained oxygen, and in 1816 Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac and Claude-Louis Berthollet established its chemical composition. Gasmet manufactures portable FTIR gas analyzers and stationary FTIR emissions monitoring systems for chemicals industry. form inorganic fertilizers (! This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/science/nitric-acid, National Center for Biotechnology Information - PubChem - Nitric Acid, The Essential Chemical Industry Online - Nitric Acid, nitric acid - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Nitric acid, (HNO3), colourless, fuming, and highly corrosive liquid (freezing point −42 °C [−44 °F], boiling point 83 °C [181 °F]) that is a common laboratory reagent and an important industrial chemical for the manufacture of fertilizers and explosives. Nitric acid is a type of potent mineral acid used to make things like fertilizers, dyes, and high explosives. Nitric acid, colorless, fuming, and highly corrosive liquid that is a common laboratory reagent and an important industrial chemical for the manufacture of fertilizers and explosives. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. All the gases in the sample can be measured simultaneously because the entire infrared spectrum is scanned at once. The resulting acid-in-water solution (about 50–70 percent by weight acid) can be dehydrated by distillation with sulfuric acid. This is a reagent that is capable of dissolving gold and platinum. The complexities of QAL (Quality Assurance Level) procedures for continuous emissions monitoring equipment and the EU Directives behind them can be cumbersome to grasp for any emissions monitoring operator. In fertilizer production, Nitric acid is used for manufacturing different types of nitrogenous fertilizers like calcium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, etc. The caustic, colorless liquid is typically produced on an industrial scale using highly specialized chemical processes and equipment. This is the main reason why nitric acid is produced in such large quantities. Updates? Read on to find out what else the CMM AutoQAL is all about. Nitric acid with a concentration of up to 68% can be produced with the uhde® azeotropic process. I redid the experiment performed by NurdRage but I could not post as a video response. It is also used for making explosives such as nitroglycerin and TNT. In the method developed by the German chemist Wilhelm Ostwald in 1901, ammonia gas is successively oxidized to nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide by air or oxygen in the presence of a platinum gauze catalyst. Nitric acid decomposes into water, nitrogen dioxide, and oxygen, forming a brownish yellow solution. When used as a fertilizer, nitric acid promotes rapid growth in plants. The two most common and hazardous nitrogen oxides are nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide. Read about our solutions to the chemical industry! What is Gasmet App? Nitrogen oxides and ammonia are harmful to the environment and toxic to humans.

nitric acid fertilizer

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